The article discusses the limitations and potential solutions for scaling Ethereum’s virtual machine (EVM) at the execution layer. While layer-2 rollups have been a focus for scaling solutions, there is also a need to improve the performance of the EVM itself. Developers are exploring ways to introduce parallelism and new constructs to enhance the EVM’s capabilities. However, concerns are raised about the possibility of an excess of layer-2 protocols and the limitations imposed by bandwidth. The article concludes that scaling at the execution layer still has a long way to go but is seen as a solvable problem.

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